Part of the Security Layer Series
Layer 4 is where the rubber meets the road as far as actual connectivity to the applications and logic of the controllers.
Layer 4 is the transport layer and for IP it typically means either TCP (Transmission control protocol) or UDP (User Datagram protocol).
I mentioned earlier that IP is inherently not deterministic and that has implications for automated control. Layer four is the first place where the compensations for this occur.
A quick run through of how TCP works will help some. I am going to grossly oversimplify here so if someone wants to correct or provide more detail feel free.
TCP establishes a session to ensure data delivery. A host initiates the communication by sending a TCP/SYN packet. The recipient of the SYN responds with a SYN/ACK with session identification information and the original host responds with an ACK/ACK establishing the session. Periodically during the communication stream the acknowledge process is repeated to ensure the communication is maintained. Checksums are included as an inherent part of the protocol. Time sent between packets received is monitored to determine if a session is lost and to initiate reestablishment of the communication stream.
What this means in a nutshell is that TCP has many mechanisms built into it that compensate (in part) for the issues introduced by the fact that IP is non deterministic. It doesn’t by any stretch of the imagination mean that TCP itself is secure in any way. There are many ways to game the system and hackers and worms use them to their full advantage. If you really want to get into the details take a look at NMAP and the lists at www.Insecure.org .
The most common one and the one I have seen cause issues on PLC’s is the syn scan. It basically works by opening up a listening port then streaming syn’s to all of the selected ports on every address that is to be inspected. Everything that responds with a syn/ack is logged. The connection is never completed with an ackack. This is where the problem is (especially for controllers with older IP stacks). The receiving host uses some resources to sit there waiting for that ack/ack. There are DoS attacks related to this but for the most part they are not that effective for newer IP stacks. (Syn floods can still cause headaches though) Unfortunately PLC’s do not always have newer stacks so they are often particularly vulnerable to this.
This is directly relevant to the scanning discussions that have occurred with some level of passion on this blog’s comments and in the background via email. My advice here if you plan on scanning a scada system for the first time and you have done the change management it is best to start with a TCP connect scan that exits gracefully as your initial connection enumeration method. Limit the scan to a few interesting ports and don’t hit all 65k (at first at least). I wouldn’t even do fast scan ports. After you have a few under the belt for that address range then slowly expand. Do the fast scan ports then if wanted the whole 65k. After you are comfortable with this make sure you have people watching the equipment and have a recovery plan then try the syn scans. Once you have gotten past this point you can go on to the rest of your vulnerability assessment or pen test. I know this is insanely conservative for most Security professionals but the critics are not exaggerating when they want that bad things can (and will) happen. I am an advocate for scanning systems and have done so many times without significant issue on Rockwell/ABB, Honeywell, Siemens, and other vendor control systems but there is always a risk. My typical response to the DON”T SCAN crowd is “Sooner or later the systems are going to be hit by an actual attack or something that is functionally identical to one so wouldn’t you rather that happen in a controlled manner?”.
End of Aside
Many PLC vendors use TCP as their primary IP communication method to their controllers and all of them use it for their historians, MES, and control aggregation systems. I have seen a bit of an explosion in HTTP access to endpoints and I have mentioned ModBusIP in earlier posts in this series. I am not going to go into detail on what ports are used here. If you want to find out ask your vendor they will tell you. What you should do however is make sure that is possible you block access to the TCP port used as the primary PLC communication protocol at the point closest to the controllers as possible. ACL’s are acceptable if actual firewalls are not available. For vendors that use standard ports such as telnet, http, or RPC this can be somewhat more difficult to do. Take advantage of point to point and point to multipoint (subnet) rules. The key here is to not allow access to the PLC’s from an uncontrolled network. Access to the Historians and central control systems should be controlled primarily on a white list basis. For really large engagements such as regional operation centers it is often possible to isolate both the central and the local subnets and connect them via VPN tunnels. If you are doing this it is best to isolate remote sites from each other.
Enough for today
Rest of TCP and UDP continued later.