There is really only one item on the networking layer that is significant from an ACS prospective but that item is a huge one.
IP is on controllers and control networks.
Of course IP is everywhere. Why wouldn’t it be?
It is so beautifully simple. Some of the best and most elegant engineering I have ever seen.
With 4 bytes of information (likely less than the amount of information required to encode two letters of your name) you can get from any computer in the world to any computer in the world and back again.
Oh, this is a bit over simplistic. There is certainly more information involved in the total train of the data movement but as far as your computer is concerned only 4 bytes matter. How simple can you get? The fractal complexity that grows from this seed is amazing.
The consequences of this are what make all of the other security concerns significant. If a PLC or MES is connected to an IP network (even indirectly) then anyone in the world that knows how can access them (though not necessarily easily). With controllers and MES’s the way they are currently designed that means that potentially anyone in the world can operate them. That means that anyone in the world can potentially operate the equipment they are connected to.
Everything else flows from this.
So what are the control mechanisms for layer 3?
Subnetting and Subnet design
For the most part a VLAN’s purpose in layer 2 is to logically divide and possibly isolate separate information conduits. The significance in layer three is that it is very easy to route around a VLAN as a divider. This can be done in several ways. The most common is simply using a router but dual homed systems and multi homed systems are also a threat. Basically what this means is that the control aspects gained using VLAN’s on layer 2 are useless if there is open routing of any type between the VLAN’s. Many times I have been told “oh don’t worry it is on its own VLAN”. The engineer thinks that somehow that provides isolation. It doesn’t. The point is that a protection that can be quite effective when viewed exclusively from the perspective of its own layer can be easily rendered useless at a higher or lower layer if it is not coupled with additional controls.
Subnetting and Subnet Design
By themselves subnets provide very little control. Done properly they can provide slight advantages to other controls. More importantly, if done improperly, they can actually make it impossible to secure a system by drastically reducing the options of control available.
PCN’s should be on their own subnet. There is no technical reason for a PCN to co-reside on a subnet used for other purposes. They often do because it is difficult to get a new network set up specifically for use as a PCN and there is a cost associated with separating them but in my opinion the small additional cost and amount of work is trivial compared to the amount that not separating them increases the threat environment. This is true even for non-significant PCN’s.
This one might be a bit contentious but I am a fan of using private address spaces for PCN’s. It provides some control in that it limits the potential external accessibility (ok not much but even a little can help), it helps people keep the networks separate in their minds, it doesn’t significantly impact connectivity and it allows some obfuscation of the environment at least from certain perspectives. The only real drawback is that to access it remotely NAT might be necessary (of course I kinda see this as a plus).
Keep the subnets relatively small while allowing for growth. There is absolutely no reason I can think of for having a 248 or 240 mask. If the PCN is going to be that large it wouldn’t hurt to logically divide it anyway. Increased division can also help from a redundancy and reliability standpoint by facilitating the use of routing protocols for redundant paths vs. spanning tree. Use spanning tree only for close redundancies one or two hops at most (in my opinion not even then, I am really not a fan of spanning tree I see it as an attempt to inject layer 3 functions into an inherently layer 2 protocol suite, It’s only valid function is stopping loops not providing redundancy in my mind – sorry networking religious quirk of mine) use routing for anything more significant.
If you have a large enough site to require multiple subnets and you are using private addresses (or are lucky enough to have a huge public range and choose to ignore my advice to use private ranges anyway) chose subnet breakdowns that allow for easy masking for expansions or acquisitions. (Net ranges at 16, 32 or even 64 on a 10.). This is good advice for normal networking as well. I don’t know how many organizations I have seen paint themselves into a box with 10.1, 10.2, 10.3 schemes that prevented easy logical aggregation using the octets themselves without sucking up huge ranges.
With one exception (the Gulf of Mexico’s Deepwater Rigs) almost all PCN’s I have seen have been small enough that they are end subnets on any routing network. My only real comments on this one are why route it if you don’t need to and if you do route contain the gateways and paths to something you (or at least your organization) have control of.
MPLS hasn’t caused any significant problems that I have seen yet but it can be compromised from the provider side. This compromise is not limited to watching traffic. A friend of mine and I successfully did an injection attack by replacing labels in line using a perl script. We convinced “customer” network Alice that we were an address on “customer” network Bob and pinged addresses in Alice. This was in a lab environment so this is easier said than done but it is possible. The main reason I think this is significant is that in some nations access to the nodes of the provider network might not be as controlled as in others. Of course the same risk holds true for Frame Relay and ATM but the pool of potential hostiles that are knowledgeable enough to pull it off for those two is a lot smaller. I also trust the carrier networks less because I know that many of the MPLS networks are growths from the older and uncontrolled MIP days. Frame Relay and ATM networks were never used as direct IP ISP’s. (though they did carry them at a different layer) Plus MPLS is growing like a weed because it saves the carriers money and they can pass a bit on to the customers.
Anyway you’ve been warned.
Enough writing for now. I’ll do ACL’s Firewalls and NIPS/NIDS Thursday or Friday.